Insulin is a hormone found naturally in the body. Some diabetic patients fall short in the production of insulin. Hence, this has to be supplemented form outside.


Safety: insulin is the one of the safest medications for diabetes. It is the only medication approved for use in pregnancy and in diabetic complications (recently some other oral drugs are also finding approval). Contrary to the myths, insulin does not cause eye or kidney damage.

Insulin can cause LOW SUGAR. Injection of insulin has to followed by a meal

Mode: Insulin has to be injected into the body. At present, no oral insulin is available, although, trials are on their way. The size of needles available is very small and patients hardly realize the prick. Insulin is also available in form of disposible and permanat pens, which  makes it easy to carry and administer.

Patietns should always be encouraged to self inject the insulin to reduce dependability.




Regular : these function similar to human insulin & have to be taken 25-30 min before food. Long acting forms can work for upto 10 hrs, while short acting lasts for 3 - 4hours.

Designer : these are newer insulin’s with faster onset of action and more predictability. Long acting designer insulin can last for upto 24 hours.  These can be takenjust with the meals. However, these are more expensive than the regular ones.


Newer Developments: insulin pumps are now available, which can be affixed to the body. These pager –like devices supply insulin continuously at a predetermined dose. The dosage has to be fixed by your doctor.




The goals of insulin therapy include:


  • Approaching or maintaining ideal body weight
  • Maintaining fasting blood glucose (FPG) concentration between 80-120 mg/dL
  • Maintaining bedtime blood glucose concentration between 100 and 140 mg/dL
  • Maintaining Glycosylated hemoglbin (HbA1c) below 7%
  • Maintaining systolic/diastolic blood pressure below 130/80 mmHg

Insulin therapy is constantly clouded by several myths. Insulin therapy does notmean that diabetes is in its most critical stage. The below facts will help rest yourfears about insulin therapy:

Most people with Type 2 diabetes eventually need insulin: the production of insulin falls off with time and therefore every type 2 diabetes patients inevitably become insulin deficient.

If you need insulin, it doesn’t mean you failed: Oral antidiabetic medicines do not control blood glucose forever, because they don’t stop the problem of declining insulin production.

Insulin will not worsen your diabetes: In fact, it will help control glucose levels and hence will result in fewer complications.

Insulin injections are not painful: Most people who do not want to take injections are happy using them after giving their first injection.

Insulin therapy is the treatment in which insulin is externally administered into the body. Insulin is given to patients when their bodies fail to produce this hormone naturally. The Type 2 diabetes patients are first administered oral antidiabetic medications. They are switched to insulin therapy if the disease has reached critical stages and the complications cannot be managed with oral medications alone.


Insulin therapy cannot be administered as pills because it would be broken down during digestion. It must therefore be injected into the fat under the skin. 

Insulin therapy is initiated upon the physician’s discretion. However, the following parameters are considered for insulin therapy –


Presence of heart disease, kidney disease, and diseases related to nervous system and liver complications with diabetes.


Presence of infections (such as tuberculosis) or diabetes related injuries.


Patients with diabetes undergoing surgical procedures, especially those requiring general anesthesia, should be stabilized on insulin.


Pregnant women with gestational diabetes should be managed with insulin, if they do not have tight control of diabetes with diet alone. Underweight patients should be administered insulin.


With essential care taken during insulin therapy, diabetes patients can enjoy their everyday activities in the most normal way. The following points will help you better manage your insulin therapy:

The following steps should be considered when on insulin therapy:


The dosage of insulin differs in patients suffering from heart, kidney and hepatic diseases.


When insulin is injected in the body due to low absorption of insulin redness, pain, itching, hives, swelling, and
inflammation occurs therefore, rotation of injection site should be taken into consideration.


Insulin requirements may be altered during undercurrent conditions such as illness, emotional disturbances, or otherstresses.


Self medication is highly restricted as it may hamper the efficacy of the insulin taken.


Don’t skip meals as skipping meals leads to insulin resistance.


Try to eat organic food as much as possible as it has reduced hormones which the farmers otherwise feed their animalsand crops. The decreased extra hormonal intake reduces the side effect on the efficacy of insulin injected


A void charbroiled and smoked foods as they tend to increase inflammation.


Exercise at least 3-4 days in a week as it will strengthen the muscles of the various parts of the body and the sites of injection will heal soon.


Get trained about insulin therapy as soon as you are asked to take it.


The food should be rich in protein.


Always carry the Insulin doses and a patient card stating the number of doses required.


Do not adjust the insulin dose over birthdays, times of especially heavy exercise or other unusual situations.


Insulin vials should be preferably stored at 4-80C.


The insulin vial should be brought down to body temperature by gently rubbing it between the palms before
withdrawing the insulin into the syringes.